Keynote speech at the 7-in-1 Symposium, CTIF, Aahrus, Denmark

posted Jul 3, 2021, 3:58 PM by Rute Sofia   [ updated Jul 3, 2021, 4:00 PM ]

June 2021

Large-scale IoT environments have been growing fast via the advancement of 5G, 6G, advanced wireless standards, associated with advancements in virtualization technologies. These environments, composed of sensors, actuators, and mobile personal smartphones, will be the basis to assist societal needs and aspects such as well-being, as can already be envisioned via the learnings derived from the current COVID-19 epidemic. Thereis therefore a natural need and a tendency to bring computation and networking functions closer to the end-user, supported by Edge/Fog architectures, to be able to support services that are based on large-scale IoT, decentralizedenvironments.Central to this vision are aspects such as self-organisation, automation, and intelligence derived from behaviour learning and context-awareness (of devices, of the user, of the situation), aspects which this talk aims at focusing on, advocating the need to integrate context-awareness derived from social behavior of users, in addition todevice usage and behavior

Keynote speech at IARIA ICNS2021, May 2021

posted Jul 3, 2021, 3:46 PM by Rute Sofia   [ updated Jul 3, 2021, 3:50 PM ]

Industrial IoT applications have strict communication requirements e.g., low latency, jitter. To support these requirements, IIoT wired networks rely on the "Time Sensitive Networking" standards. 
While traditionally supported by wired networks, IIoT environments are more and more integrated with cellular and wireless technologies, as these provide flexibility, support large-scale onboarding, and low deployment costs.
This talk goes over the work developed in the fortiss TSNWiFi project (2020-2021), which has been focusing on addressing time synchronisation and time-aware scheduling aspects to support a better integration between wired/TSN and wireless (Wi-Fi6) in IIoT environments.

ACM ToIT SI Section: Evolution of Networking Architectures

posted Sep 22, 2020, 2:09 PM by Rute Sofia

(Sep 2020): The ACM ToIT Special Issue Section on “Evolution of IoT Networking Architectures” is out (Volume 20, Issue 3, Sep 2020). The editorial work for this SI section has been developed by: Rute C. Sofia (fortiss GmbH), Eve M. Schooler (Intel), Dirk Kutscher (University of Applied Sciences Emden/Leer), Chris Winkler (Siemens AG)

This special issue has gathered leading-edge scientific research and insights on the impact the IoT has had on the evolution of communication architectures and protocols; how best to support diverse communication requirements in the context of different IoT scenarios, ranging from industrial to consumer-based IoT; how to adequately define and address interoperability, within and across different layers in the network architecture, leveraging cross-layer design; and finally how to design a more unified next generation Internet architecture and end-to-end protocol stack, given the increasing numbers of wireless and mobile devices. The selected papers cover a broad range of IoT networking architectural topics: efficient and automated communication in wireless and wired environments; offloading of applications in mobile environments; security; and interoperability.

Check the issue here.

IIoT - Supporting the Next Generation of Services and Applications

posted Jan 9, 2020, 12:39 PM by Rute Sofia   [ updated Jan 9, 2020, 12:58 PM ]

(Jan 2020) Internet services and networking architectures have evolved steadily to accommodate technological changes and the development of novel services on the Internet. With the expansion of the Internet of Things (IoT), there is now a complete entanglement of the Internet into different realms of our daily lives. Things are becoming increasingly mobile and heterogeneous in terms of computational and storage capabilities, as well as in terms of power. Furthermore, new IoT technologies are expanding the reach of services over large distances, and into new realms, such as: space.

These new possibilities open up a myriad of new business possibilities, and in the context of Industrial IoT (IIoT), they are the basis for a new Industrial Revolution. IIoT data will be generated from a gazillion smart devices over very large distances, sustaining a global and wide digitalization, greater efficiency, and improved productivity, among other benefits. These benefits are already being applied in different vertical markets, including but not limited to manufacturing. For instance, in Smart Logistics, Connected Mobility, Smart Cities.

It is therefore relevant to keep on exploring different trends that may better support data exchange, in particular involving the next generation of IIoT services and applications.

To contribute, propose your work to the MDPI Future Internet Special Issue on "Network Architectures and Protocols for Industrial IoT", until 30.06.2020.

Aspects of Global Mobility Management for Next Generation Networks

posted Nov 12, 2018, 11:51 AM by Rute Sofia   [ updated Sep 22, 2020, 2:11 PM ]

July 2020: new book, Rute C. Sofia, Global Mobility Management for Next Generation Networks, Cambridge Scholars, June 1st 2020. ISBN-13: 978-1-5275-4848-0

(Nov 2018)
Handling mobility management in the Internet is not trivial, given the heterogeneity of devices involved; providers involved; service requirements. The Internet evolution requires re-thinking mobility management and to understand how to best distribute functionality across the network. The data transmission itself needs to take into consideration mobility, and to dynamically adjust to human movement, as next generation networks are information-centric, and user-centric.

During the last decades, several mobility management approaches have been design and validated, and are today operationally available. In the context of distributed mobile edge computing, mobility management architectures can be addressed in a novel way integrating functions such as mobility prediction and learning. For that purpose, there are a few topics that are relevant to be revisited, as explained next.

1. Mobility management functional splitting
The different approaches available today in multi-access heterogeneous networks, across different TCP/IP stack layers, which have been extensively worked upon in the context of the IETF are evolving towards decentralized mobility management. In this process, it is relevant to understand the limitations that current solutions face in next generation networks. It is also relevant to understand which functional blocks compose mobility management architectures, independently of the layer where such solutions reside.

2. From centralized to decentralized mobility management
Moving from centralized to distributed mobility management architectures can be designed in a way that is "closer" to the Internet end-user. Understanding how and where to position the different blocks that compose mobility management imply analyzing how to best decouple mobility management functionality.

3. Mobility modelling and anticipation
Moreover, in dynamic environments (which today are the basis of the Internet fringes), human interaction and computational models that can estimate aspects related with such interaction (e.g., frequency of visits to networks; roaming habits) can be provided via mobility estimation mechanisms. Mobility estimation is therefore a required mobility management function, still missing in today's architectures. Adding such mechanisms to mobility management architectures, centralized or decentralized, is beneficial.

4. Moving towards content-centric mobility management architectures
A more adequate distribution of mobility management requires a move towards a data-centric mobility management perspective. Today, mobility management solutions are focused on mobility management of devices, and this aspect is particularly challenging, due to the inherent addressing schemes, among other aspects. Simultaneous mobility of source and destination devices is an aspect that is not trivial to address. Still, analysing mobility management support from an information-centric perspective, instead of from a host reachability perspective, is relevant in the quest for mobility management that can support future Internet paradigms, where all devices are highly mobile.

Read More:

Evolving Communications in IoT

posted Sep 21, 2018, 11:58 AM by Rute Sofia   [ updated Oct 8, 2019, 12:59 PM ]

(Sep 2018)
Internet of Things (IoT) communication architectures and protocols are evolving to be able to cope with new challenges such as the processing of large amounts of data; filtering; data mining and classification; high heterogeneity in devices and software.
Today, IoT communication is supported by TCP/IP which were not designed having in mind time sensitive networks or low power networks. Energy is wasted each time data is transmitted, due to protocol overhead, and non-optimized communication patterns.
The most recent trend on communication protocols follow a publish/subscriber broker approach, which creates an abstraction between things that produce information, and people or devices that consume such information. Nevertheless, issues concerning mobility management, privacy, security, and resource consumption subsist mostly tied to the networking semantics of IP, which follow a host-based reachability approach.

The new architectural paradigm of ICN focuses on providing support to directly reach information objects, while in contrast today’s Internet is focused on reaching devices that store information objects. The design of ICN paradigms seem to bring in relevant features to IoT environments. ICN approaches such as NDN have integrated security support; reliable multi-path data-based routing;  built-in mobility support such as an interface abstraction, which is relevant for multihoming. Being information-centric, ICN does not transmit data based on host identifiers, such as addresses.

The evolutionary trend and interoperability aspects of publish/subscriber approaches as well as of network architectures and protocols in general are being exploited by the COPELABS IoT Lab team.

DABBER: Data reAchaBility BasEd Routing for Named-data Networking Wireless Environments

posted Apr 6, 2018, 4:04 AM by Rute Sofia   [ updated Apr 6, 2018, 4:07 AM ]

The European UMOBILE project is working on methods to extend NDN towards opportunistic wireless networks. In this context, COPELABS has been implementing an NFD extension, called NDN-OPP, which supports NDN multi-hop wireless communication: NDN-OPP V1.0 for Android does broadcast of Interest packets over a Wi-Fi direct network. 
In order to reduce resource consumption in a NDN multi-hop wireless networks, COPELABS, SENCEPTION and ATHENA have created the DABBER routing protocol, which allows selective forwarding of Interest packets based on the local announcement of name prefixes + node awareness about the properties of neighbour nodes (centrality and availability). DABBER aims to operate on a point-to-point wireless network (e.g. Wi-Fi direct, DTN) as well as on a broadcast network (e.g. ah-hoc Wi-Fi).
DABBER was submitted to IRTF, and will be presented in the ICNRG meeting in London (Mar 17th - Mar 23rd).


The Role of Smart Data in Inference of Human Behavior and Interaction - book Chapter

posted Apr 6, 2018, 3:31 AM by Rute Sofia   [ updated Apr 6, 2018, 3:33 AM ]

Rute C. Sofia, Liliana I. Carvalho., Francisco de Melo Pereira, Samrat Dattagupta.The Role of Smart Data in Inference of Human Behavior and Interaction. Book chapter. "Smart Data: State-of-the-Art and Perspectives in Computing and Applications". Editors:K.-C. Li, Q. Zhang. L. T. Yang, B. Di Martino. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, USA. April 2019. ISBN: 1138545589. (Accepted April 2018, To appear).

This chapter explores features, concepts, and provides guidelines concerning the role and applicability of smart data captured in a non-intrusive way, in the inference and contextualization of human behavior and interaction.
The chapter starts by introducing aspects related to human interaction, for instance, how to define and to best model physical and psychological proximity; models for social awareness and social contextualization. The next part of the chapter deals with interaction inference and interaction contextualization, namely: classification models that best suit the inference of behavior in the vere of smart data; challenges in regards to small data capture and behavior inference derived from small data, in particular when considering decentralized, mobile cyber-physical systems; guidelines to model interaction based on pervasive wireless sensing systems, including available middleware and systems (tools). The chapter then provides information concerning specific applicability use-cases, namely, Points of Interest detection via smart data, and how smart data can be used to boost social interaction in a pervasive, non-intrusive way. The chapter concludes with a set of recommendations.

Connecting the Edges: A Universal, Mobile-Centric, and Opportunistic Communications Architecture

posted Feb 19, 2018, 8:04 AM by Rute Sofia

New H2020 UMOBILE paper: C. A. Sarros et al., "Connecting the Edges: A Universal, Mobile-Centric, and Opportunistic Communications Architecture," in IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 136-143, Feb. 2018.doi: 10.1109/MCOM.2018.1700325

The Internet has crossed new frontiers with access to it getting faster and cheaper. Considering that the architectural foundations of today’s Internet were laid more than three decades ago, the Internet has done remarkably well until today to cope with the growing demand. However, the future Internet architecture is not only expected to support the ever-growing number of users and devices but also a diverse set of new applications and services.
Departing from the traditional host-centric access paradigm where access to a desired content is mapped to its location, an information-centric model enables the association of access to a desired content with the content itself, irrespectively of the location where it is being held. UMOBILE tailors the information-centric communication model to meet the requirements of opportunistic communications, integrating those connectivity approaches into a single architecture.By pushing services near the edge of the network, such an architecture can pervasively operate in any networking environment and allows for the development of innovative applications, providing access to data independently of the level of end-to-end connectivity availability.

Senception 'Ones to Watch', running for Public European Champion 2017/2018

posted Feb 1, 2018, 2:19 AM by Rute Sofia   [ updated Feb 1, 2018, 2:48 AM ]

Senception Lda has been awarded by the European Business Awards as 'Ones to Watch' 2017/2018. Senception is one of the 11 small portuguese SMEs running for 'Public European Champion 2017/2018'.
Please support us by voting via: European Business Awards

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